by Lawrence Wilson, MD
© January 2010, The Center for Development

Water is not only the most essential substance next to oxygen for human life. It is also fantastically complex, often containing hundreds of dissolved minerals and chemicals. It is a marvelous substance whose value is often unrecognized.


The type of water one drinks is an essential aspect of all nutritional balancing programs. We find that the best types of water to drink are either steam distilled water or spring water.

Also, distilled water is only to be used for a few months, as afterwards it tends to leach vital minerals from the body. Spring water appears to be the best long-term drinking water. Carbon-filtered tap water appears to be the second best type of drinking water.

Reverse osmosis water is mineral free and clean, but appears not to hydrate the body adequately at all. The reasons for this are unclear. However, it should be avoided as a daily drinking water. This means to also avoid popular types of water that are called “drinking water”, “purified water” and some bottled waters such as Dasani and others that are prepared by reverse osmosis.

Also, avoid any drinking water that is made in alkaline water machines, as I do not feel this is safe for long-term use. Short term use is okay for a few months, but then the platinum used in the plates in the machine, and other imbalances may cause problems.

Cautions with drinking water. Be sure to read the label on drinking water in the supermarket carefully. Sometimes the fine print will show that drinking water that is labeled as “distilled” is really made by reverse osmosis. This is not acceptable water to drink on a regular basis, as it will not hydrate the body adequately.

Another caution is to avoid the use of most home water distillers. I am not sure why, but these do not work as well as the distilled water that can be purchased at supermarkets and elsewhere. It may be because the commercially distilled water has pre- and post-filters that remove more volatile organic chemicals. In contrast, home distillers may simply boil the organic chemicals and then cause them to recondense in the purified water, and this is not healthful.

Also, beware of all sorts of designer or special kinds of water. Most are either tap water that is treated with reverse osmosis and then minerals added back, or some is even worse, with very unbalanced forms of minerals added. None of these waters that I have seen is worth the cost.

Some object to the plastic bottles in which spring and distilled water is sold. While it is unfortunate to waste these materials, the plastic does not seem to interfere with our nutritional balancing programs at all. Far worse is to drink tap water laden with chemicals, or reverse osmosis water that does not properly hydrate the body.

A few ideas to avoid buying water in new plastic bottles. In many cities, the problem can be overcome by having spring water or distilled water delivered to your home. The cost is about the same and the bottles used are older and recycled. Another solution in a few areas is to find an excellent spring and fill up your bottles – plastic or glass – directly from the spring. Of course, make sure the water is safe and healthful.


Large textbooks are written about water. Water has so many properties that I can only touch upon some of the most important ones and other practical considerations.

Water has a spin, moment, particle size, specific gravity, acidity, hardness, total dissolved solids, boiling point, bond angle, overall quality and microorganisms. Let us discuss each of these in more detail.

Spin. Water molecules spin in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. This influences the water’s effect on the human body. The spin should be clockwise. When it is reversed, the water pulls minerals from the body and disrupts normal mineral metabolism.

Moment. Water has a weight or molecular structure that depends on its moment. Moment is the manner in which a substance behaves in the presence of other substances. Water is, of course, in contact with many substances which influence it and which it in turn influences. Moment has to do with the way water interacts with these substances.

Particle Size. Water contains dissolved particles. These are ions, electrical and protonic particles. The size of these particles also imparts qualities to water that are easily measured with electrical conductivity testers.

Specific Gravity. Water has a specific gravity index that also influences its effect on the body. The higher the specific gravity, the more it adheres to cell walls and other structures. This is the viscosity of the water. Ideally, water should have a very low specific gravity. This means the water is ‘wetter’ and will penetrate the cells better, bringing more nutrients to the cells and carrying away more toxins.

PH or Acidity. Water, like all substances, has a degree of acidity or alkalinity that also influences its effects on the body. The higher the pH, the more alkaline the water. Water that is too alkaline or too acid is not healthful. Many people are using machines that alkalinize the water by adding or removing minerals from it. This I consider risky as it changes the properties of the water, often in unnatural ways. I do not recommend these machines.

Hardness. All naturally-occurring water contains minerals to some degree. Hardness refers to the amount of calcium in the water. I recommend a water that is hard, but not too hard.

Total Dissolved Solids. This refers to the total of the minerals contained in the water. This can vary tremendously from various water sources. A good total dissolved solid level (tds) is about 300-400.

Boiling Point. Water is said to boil at 212º F. However, the boiling point varies with the altitude. It also varies with the nature of the water. Salt water, for example, boils at a higher temperature. It also freezes at a lower temperature. This is why salt is applied to sidewalks and roads. It causes ice to melt.

The boiling point of water is more important than one might imagine. This has to do with vaporization of the water in the body and its excretion through the lungs and skin. Water that boils at a lower temperature will volatilize or vaporize faster. This is beneficial for removing toxic substances from the body. I recommend a water with a lower boiling point.

The boiling point depends of course on the minerals in the water. It also depends on the structure of the water and on subtle factors related to the spin, moment, weight and other factors.

Overall Quality. This refers to the amounts and ratios of the various minerals and other substances in the water. This is a complex area as there can be over 100 minerals in a particular water plus thousands of toxic chemicals, pesticide residues, pharmaceuticals, solvents and added chemicals in any particular water. Unfortunately, today most water is very contaminated with heavy metals and toxic chemicals. Therefore, most tap and well water is not of very good quality and will not hydrate the body as well as a quality distilled or spring water, the only waters I recommend for drinking.

Micro-organisms. All water except perhaps triple distilled laboratory water contains microorganisms. These include bacteria, fungi, parasitic organisms, viri and mycoplasma. Water may also contain insect larvae, ova, plant matter, animal feces and many other biological compounds. I recommend water than has been filtered by passing through the earth to produce well and spring water. Carbon filtration also helps remove many micro-organisms, but it does not remove others, and does not remove toxic metals, for the most part.

Deep well and spring water is generally cleaner in this regard, as it comes from deeper within the earth. Surface water from rivers and lakes, for example, is often far more contaminated with insect, fish and algae residues.


Water used for drinking can be surface water, well water or rain water. Well water is usually the most mineralized water. Research indicates that ‘hard’ water helps reduce heart attacks, probably due to its higher calcium and magnesium content.

Surface water found in lakes and streams is usually less mineralized as it has not passed through large amounts of rock and soil. It can be excellent water if it is not contaminated with human or animal waste or industrial chemicals.

Rainwater falls in a distilled state. That is, it is mineral-free. However, once it hits the ground, it quickly picks up minerals from anything it touches. If collected in metal cisterns, for example, it will pick up some metal from the pipes and collecting tanks. It can also pick up toxic chemicals and many other substances. It is generally a ‘soft’ water, higher in sodium, that tends to leach toxic metals like copper, iron, lead and cadmium out of water pipes much more than hard water. Thus, one must be careful about drinking rain water unless it is collected in a very clean manner.


Humanity has always had a problem with the safety and cleanliness of drinking water supplies. This is still a serious concern in most every nation. In some nations, water-borne epidemics sweep through communities including cholera, typhoid fever, amoebic dysentery and many others. “Montezuma’s Revenge” is a popular name for usually water-borne illnesses that can be fatal for children in many undeveloped nations.

Many micro-organisms, as well as toxic metals, toxic chemicals, sewage and today even residues of pharmaceutical drugs often contaminate water supplies.

Mankind has developed many methods to treat water to make it potable or drinkable. These are discussed later and include filtration, distillation, reverse osmosis, magnetic treatments, electrical discharge such as deionization, ozonation (passing in front of ultraviolet lamps), spinning the water to form vortices, allowing particles to settle out, adding chemicals such as aluminum, copper and chlorine for purification, and others. Let us discuss some of these water treatment methods


To remove bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms, almost all city water companies add chlorine to the water. However, artificial chlorination is highly toxic to human beings and animals.

Some researchers assert that chlorination of the drinking water is a major cause of heart attacks and hardening of the arteries that occurred beginning in the early 20th century. Chlorination of drinking water probably also contributes to cancer and other illnesses, as chlorine is so toxic.

A few American cities including Los Angeles, and many parts of Europe, use ozone to purify their water supply. Ozone is O3, an unstable form of oxygen that is known to kill many pathogenic organisms. Its only drawback is it does not stay in the water as long as chlorine does.

While these communities may still need to add some purifying chemicals, ozonation is much safer, cheaper and more healthful. It will come into wider use as scientists realize the damage chlorine has done to humans, animals and plant life.


Towns often add aluminum compounds to water to make solid matter clump and fall to the bottom of holding tanks used at most water treatment plants. While it removes solid matter, aluminum finds its way into the drinking water. Excessive aluminum is found in most people’s tissue mineral tests. High levels are associated with memory impairment and dementia.

Copper in water. Water companies may also add other chemicals to water, particularly copper compounds, to reduce the amount of algae and fungus. While copper is a nutrient mineral, many people already have too much of it. Vegetarian diets are high in copper. Weak adrenal glands cause copper accumulation. Birth control pills raise copper and copper intra-uterine devices can drastically raise one’s copper level.

Copper toxicity is extremely common, thanks in part to contamination from water sources. It can cause depression, anxiety, mood swings, panic attacks, fatigue, headaches, skin rashes and even cancer. These are among the most common symptoms in our population. Over half the mineral analyses I see reveal elevated levels of tissue copper.


Although the Clean Water Act of 1974 prohibits adding any substance to drinking water except to make it safe, many communities have been convinced by so-called health authorities to add sodium or calcium fluoride to their drinking water. They are not authorities, or they would never recommend adding fluorides to drinking water.

Large-scale studies fail to show any reduction in tooth decay from water fluoridation. Some studies showed more decay in fluoridated areas.

All nations except the United States and some parts of Great Britain and Australia have given up the practice based on the research and on the principle of people’s right to choose whether or not to have their water medicated. Adding fluoride has nothing to do with the safety of the water, and in fact makes it much more toxic.

Fluorides are very toxic chemicals, considered as toxic as mercury or lead. Also, the compound often used, hydrofluosilicic acid, is not pure fluoride but rather a smokestack waste product from fertilizer plants that is about 30% fluoride. It contains heavy metals, kerosene, radioactive substances and other toxins.

To be putting smokestack waste into drinking water is, in the author’s opinion, criminally insane. Anyone who drinks it is foolish. The facts are available to anyone who cares to learn about them. Naturally occurring fluorides are almost as bad and should be avoided at all cost. For much more on water fluoridation, read Water Fluoridation.


I do not recommend drinking city tap water, as most of it is quite contaminated with toxic metals and chemicals, some of which are added to it. Nor do I find that reverse osmosis water is good. It simply does not hydrate the body as well.

Thus the only options are: 1) filtered water or 2) bottled spring or distilled water. Of these, we find that the latter is best.

Based on a lot of experience, I favor at this time drinking only quality steam distilled water or spring water from a reliable source. The problem of having to buy plastic bottles appears to be much less of a problem than using the other types of water. Many companies deliver spring and distilled water in older, recycled, hard plastic that is fairly inert. The cost of bottled water is a problem for some people, but it is often worthwhile for optimum health and healing. Use a carbon filter if buying water is too costly.

Beware, however, of bottled or store-bought “drinking water”. This is usually just tap water that has been treated with reverse osmosis and then minerals added back. This is not as good as steam distilled or actual spring water.


Let us discuss the various types and why we generally do not like them as much as bottled water.

Carbon Filtration. Carbon is an excellent filtering material. It comes in two ways in water filters. Either it is a powdered carbon, which is not as good. Or it comes in a compressed block form, which is somewhat better.

Carbon in either form has many, many uses in industry and other applications and is good for filtering many chemicals from water. While this is a good option for some people, here are the problems to beware of with carbon filters:

    1. It will not filter out fluoride or most toxic metals. It will also not filter out certain small organic and other chemical contaminants.
    2. All carbon filters clog up in time. There is no reliable way to tell when to change the filter. A dirty carbon filter is worse than no filter at all.
    3. Carbon readily supports bacterial and fungal growth, which can occur within days of placing the filter in use. Some fungi are extremely toxic, though they are tasteless and odorless. One cannot tell without expensive testing whether one’s carbon filter is contaminated and when to change it. Manufacturer’s recommendations are not necessarily useful. It depends on the water source and other conditions.
    Some manufacturers state that the filter must be used with chlorinated water in order to help reduce bacterial and fungal growth. If yours says this, be sure to observe this caution.
    4. Some carbon filters contain silver or other metals to inhibit bacterial and fungal growth. However, the metal leaches into the water to some degree. This is not desirable.
    5. Carbon has another problem. In order for it to work, water must pass slowly over the carbon. If it passes quickly, toxins will not be absorbed nearly as well by the carbon. In most carbon filtering systems, the water passes through the carbon much too rapidly to be really effective.

Carbon block filters. A related type of filter is called a carbon block. It consists of activated charcoal that has been compressed at high pressure. It is much more dense than simple carbon.

The advantages of the carbon block are the water is exposed to more carbon. Also, the tightly compressed carbon can trap larger particles, including some heavy metals. As a filtering material, it is far superior to simple carbon.

Problems with the carbon block, however, are similar to those of regular carbon filters. It can become easily contaminated with fungi and bacteria. There is no simple test to tell if your filter has become contaminated or how efficiently it is filtering the water. For these reasons, I consider carbon filters definitely second best, although better than nothing if changed frequently.

Reverse Osmosis. This method involves passing water at high pressure through a plastic membrane with tiny holes in it. Most substances are too large to pass through the membrane and remain behind. The design includes a way of back flushing the membrane to prevent excessive buildup of solid matter on the membrane.

Reverse osmosis units also contain carbon pre- and post-filters. The pre-filter extends the life of the membrane by removing larger particles and certain chemicals. The post-filter further purifies the water, removing chlorine and other gases that may pass through the filter. These must be changed every six months or so or the water quality will deteriorate rapidly.

Reverse osmosis and deionization are used in most commercial “drinking water” facilities, water stores, supermarket machines and bottling plants for soda pop, juices, beer and many other drinks. It is much cheaper than distillation. Membrane technology continues to advance, enhancing the amount of water that can be produced per hour and lengthening the life of the membrane.

Problems with RO or reverse osmosis:

    1. Eventually the holes in the membrane become too large, or become clogged and the membrane must be replaced. One can test this to some degree with a total dissolved solid (TDS) meter. However, the reading is only a general indicator of the integrity of the membrane. There is no simple way to test the quality of the water. This means that one’s water may or may not be as pure as one thinks.
    2. Also, the carbon filters become contaminated, as discussed above. Manufacturers suggest replacing the carbon filters at specified intervals or after a certain number of gallons have been produced. However, these are just averages. Other than the taste, it is most difficult to assess the cleanliness of the carbon filters.
    3. Reverse osmosis also appears to damage the water significantly, for drinking purposes. The interaction of the water with the plastic membrane alters the spin and moment of the water. It does not appear to hydrate the body nearly as well, in our experience. This is unfortunate.
    4. Also, deuterium particles (heavy water) passes through the membrane easily. Lighter water that is bound to contaminants is stopped. The effect is to increase the weight of the water, an undesirable change. This may be why it does not hydrate the body as well.
    5. Reverse osmosis water also produces a water with very low mineral content and a more acid pH. As with distilled water, it is a hungry water that leaches minerals from the body and does not supply needed nutrient minerals. As with distilled water, it should be used for only a short period of time for this reason alone, perhaps for short period of detoxification.
    6. A lesser problem with reverse osmosis is it wastes a lot of water. Only a small percentage of the water that enters the filter passes through. The rest is flushed out and wasted, unless it can be recovered. Some manufacturer’s today claim to have solved this problem, but I am not sure about this.
    7. Another problem with reverse osmosis is the longevity of the plastics used in the membrane. The polycarbonate plastics degrade slowly in the landfills. Filled with toxic substances, they represent as source of long-term pollution. Extremely high-temperature incineration, which is gaining in popularity, is a good form of disposal of the membranes.
  • Most people do not know which minerals they need to add. Commercial preparations such as electrolyte solutions often do not contain optimal mineral levels for each person.
  • Adding salt or sea salt to water may detoxify the body a little, but is a dangerous practice, long term, because the high sodium content can unbalance the minerals in the body by competing with other mineral absorption.
  • Most mineral preparations are not pure enough and many, such as coral calcium, can contain some toxic minerals as well.
  • Reverse osmosis water, in particular, is extremely “hungry” and adding minerals to it will cause them to be absorbed into the water easily, and then cause them to be absorbed into the body cells quickly and thoroughly. This is good if the minerals are pure, but most are not pure enough, no matter what they say on the bottle. As a result, the person is slowly but surely poisoned by the toxic minerals.

    Get your minerals primarily from cooked vegetables. Raw vegetables do not allow the body to absorb enough of them, so we find that cooked vegetables are far better. Excellent natural mineral supplements include kelp, carrot and green juice, sea salt, raw dairy products (but only raw dairy), and dried vegetable capsules or powders in some cases.

    Steam Distillation consists of boiling the water and then allowing the steam to condense. This is a fairly natural process, as it is what occurs during evaporation. All solid matter is left behind, except chemicals that volatilize at a lower temperature than the water.

    Some distillers have methods to capture these substances to prevent them from remaining in the water. This is the best type and they are far more costly, usually, for this reason.

    Distillation is probably the best treatment of water to remove pathogens, metals, chemicals and heavy water molecules. Evaporating the water does not significantly damage the spin, moment, weight and some other subtle qualities of the water.

    Problems with distilled water in general:

      1. Distillation produces a more acid water. Some people do not like this fact. In nutritional balancing science, we do not care. We find that distilled water removes so many toxic substances from the body that the overall effect is highly alkaline, even though the water itself is slightly acidic in its pH.
      2. Distilling creates a “hungry” water. Devoid of minerals, the water tends to pick up whatever minerals it touches. In nutritional balancing science, this property is used to advantage for a few months only to leach or pick up many toxic substances as it passes through our bodies. However, one must eat plenty of vegetables, and preferably some kelp and sea salt to replenish vital minerals. After a few months, however, drinking distilled water is usually not the best as it will begin to remove more physiological minerals from the body.
      Also, do not add random minerals to distilled water, as is popular in some circles. One does not know which are needed. Food is a better source, in general.
      3. Even stainless steel distillers can give up some chromium, nickel, molybdenum, arsenic, cadmium and other metals to the water. This is not a lot, however, as most is bound in the steel. An all-glass distiller would be superior if such a machine is even available.
      4. Also, distilled water lacks nutrient minerals. Everyone today is deficient in trace elements. Drinking distilled water, especially if one does not supplement the diet with a mineral supplement, will tend to cause even more mineral deficiencies.

    For this reason, I do not recommend drinking distilled water for long periods of time on a daily basis. It is excellent, however, to assist toxic metal removal. Distilled water will tend to attract many minerals to itself and some will be excreted with the urine. If one continues using it longer than six to twelve months or so, however, one will usually develop subtle mineral deficiencies even if one supplements minerals.


    My first choice for daily drinking on a long-term basis is a high-quality spring water. It supplies many needed minerals, has been filtered through the earth to remove most toxins and microorganisms, and has not been damaged by processing.

    Problems with spring waters include its higher cost, inconvenience of hauling bottles, pollution from plastic containers and possible leaching of plastics into the water. Also, not all spring water is healthful.

    However, I feel the problems are offset by the superior quality of good spring water. One can buy it by the case from food coops and warehouse stores to save money. Glass or the clear plastic containers have less chance of leaching pthalates and other compounds into the water.

    A partial list of good spring waters includes Crystal Geyser, Evian, Perrier, Calistoga and Poland Springs. Arrowhead spring water is a mixture from various springs, and is generally okay.

    Waters to Avoid. Please avoid Trinity Water, as it is much too high in fluoride. Also, do not be fooled by fancy sounding names like Dasani and Aqua Fina. These are inferior filtered tap waters or “drinking waters” produced by reverse osmosis.

    Always read labels to see if water is actually spring water or just filtered tap water. Also, I do not believe most people need to pay extra for water that has been altered by adding ozone, special minerals or by other processes. Many of these are available today. Some are obviously better than others and there are too many to comment on at this time.


    Alkaline water. I know of two types of alkaline water systems. Both have similar problems and I suggest strictly avoiding all alkaline water at this time.

    The first type are more popular and are free-standing kitchen units. These include the Jupiter, I-Water, Kagen, and others. These devices begin with tap water. The water passes through a carbon filter, which does not remove many toxic metals and often does not even remove too many toxic chemicals because the water must move quickly through the filter.

    Then the water passes over electrified platinum and titanium plates to alkalinize it. Platinum is a very toxic metal, as is titanium. Then many of the machines add a calcium solution or powder to the water to further enhance its alkalinity. I believe this is a prescription for disaster in the long run for the following reasons:

    • Carbon-filtered tap water is not a very good base water, since carbon cannot filter out most toxic metals and many toxic chemicals, no matter what the manufacturers claim. When water passes quickly over carbon, not that much is removed.
    • Platinum is too toxic for any human exposure, in my view. While the amount of exposure is small, we have noted that after using the machine for 6 months or so, everyone who uses one is developing a little platinum toxicity, which can be deadly. The amount of platinum absorbed will depend upon one’s tap water and one’s body chemistry. The more poorly nourished one is, the more platinum one is likely to absorb. Other factors such as one’s age, vitality, etc. also have an effect.
    • The calcium powder is often coral calcium or some other contaminated product that adds more toxic metals.
    • The alkaline water that is produced has a yin effect on the body that makes one feel better, but is not helpful for deep healing and spiritual development at all.

    If you have an alkaline machine, at least do not add the powder, and turn off the alkalinization feature if you can, and just use it as a water filter. Preferably unplug the unit so there is no chance that the platinum plates are electrified and leaching more platinum into your body. This is better, though your water is still passing over platinum, which is perhaps harmful. I have seen terrible problems caused by these machines when used daily for more than 6 months or so, even though the damage is very subtle at first.

    I also do not like the advertising for these machines with false claims that most Japanese hospitals and the public in Japan uses them. I do not believe this is true.

    An even worse type of alkaline water is sold in health food stores and at water stores that sell RO or reverse osmosis water. A calcium solution or powder, often coral calcium, is added to the reverse osmosis water to alkalinize it. Problems with this setup are:

    • Reverse osmosis does not hydrate the body well at all and should never be used for daily drinking water by most people.
    • The calcium solution or powder, especially if it is made from coral calcium, may contain toxic metals.
    • When toxic metals are added to reverse osmosis water, the ‘hungry water’ seems to take up the metals easily and drive them deep into the body cells and the kidneys.

    Plain spring water, even if it is not very alkaline, nourishes the body with many alkaline-forming minerals. Along with a proper diet of cooked vegetables, some animal protein and whole grains, but not wheat, the body will slowly become more alkaline in a natural way. Please do not be fooled by claims that the coral calcium is safe or that every family in Japan uses an alkaline water machine.

    Designer waters such as I-water and others. These are often made from reverse osmosis water, which does not hydrate the body well. Most have minerals and other things added to the water, which is also not usually helpful. Most are also costly. I do not know of any of these that are better than a good quality spring water at this time, though this could change.

    Minerals added to drinking water. This is a popular idea, but not usually helpful, in my experience. Instead, I think it is much better to add kelp and sea salt to your food to enhance your mineral intake. Another idea is to use dried vegetable capsules to add more minerals.

    Especially avoid minerals that are added to drinking water that come from the sea and those that come from land-based mineral deposits or earth mineral deposits. In my experience, these all contain some toxic metals.


    The amount of water is as important as the quality of the water. However, more of a poor-quality water will actually do more damage.

    Drinking a high-quality water, one will need less to hydrate the body. In general, an adult needs about three quarts or more of drinking water per day. More is needed in hot weather, dry weather and if one is more physically active or weighs over 200 pounds. Drinking a lot more water is not necessary or healthful.

    As part of one’s water intake, it is fine to include tea or even an occasional cup of good coffee without anything added to it. However, adding sugar, cream, lemon and other things does alter the quality of the water. This is why many books state clearly not to use anything but water.

    Soda pop, fruit juices and other beverages should not be counted in your water intake schedule. The sugars or toxic chemicals added to many beverages ruin even the best water source.

    How to drink. An excellent way to begin your day is to drink many glasses of heated water upon arising in the morning. This will supply you for hours and you won’t have to think about how much to drink all day long. Drinking a number of glasses of heated water will often help with constipation, as well.

    Otherwise, it is best to drink about two glasses of water between meals. Keep the amount of water at the meals low, so as not to dilute the digestive juices. Drinking after about 6 PM can cause men, in particular, to be up urinating during the night, which is not helpful for resting and sleep.

    These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. Nutritional Balancing Science and Hair Mineral Analysis are not intended as diagnosis, treatment or cure for any diseases and are not intended to substitute for standard medical care. Nikki Moses has a diploma in Nutritional Balancing Science and is not a doctor. She operates as a nutritional consultant only and is not licensed by the state as a healing arts practitioner.

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