SUGARS AND STARCHES
by Lawrence Wilson, MD
© December 2009, The Center For Development
All living creatures require energy with which to function, and all our energy comes from the sun. Human beings cannot directly convert sunlight to energy. We depend upon green plants that absorb solar energy and store it in forms that we can convert to usable energy or ATP. The two primary forms of stored energy in plants are oils and carbohydrates. This article discusses only the carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are classified into two basic types. The first is known as simple carbohydrates, also called sugars. The second type are called complex carbohydrates, also called starches.
Sugars are the simplest type of carbohydrates. Chemically, most are ring-shaped structures with five or six carbon atoms arranged in a circle or ring. This ring is under tension. When we eat sugars, our bodies are able to open the ring, releasing energy. This is somewhat like opening a jack-in-the-box. Opening the ring structure releases the energy, similar to releasing a spring that is under tension.
Starches, or complex carbohydrates, are groups of sugars that are bound together. Starches require much more digestion to separate the sugar molecules. For this reason, starches are not absorbed nearly as fast as simple sugars. Now let us discuss common carbohydrate foods. Let us begin with starches.
The most important group of starches are the cereal grains. The most common grain in Western societies is wheat, which the bible calls “staff of life”. It is used in bread, pasta, pizza dough and pastries. It is also the main ingredient in cakes, cookies, as a thickener and as breading for fried food.
Other cereal grains include corn, rice, rye and barley. Others are millet, oats, buckwheat and some less known ones such as quinoa, spelt, amaranth and kamut. These are the primary energy foods or staples for most civilizations on earth. For example, rice is the major food eaten in China, while corn is eaten widely in Latin America. Thousands of varieties of cereal grains are grown around the world. They are versatile, hardy crops that can be grown in a variety of climates and soils. They literally sustain mankind in many parts of the planet.
Cereal grains can be extremely nutritious foods if they are not overly processed or refined. However, most today are refined. Let us discuss what this means in practice.
Today, most cereal grains are highly refined or processed. For example, white flour is made from wheat. However, the bran (fiber) and the germ (embryo) are removed, leaving mainly the starchy part of the wheat.
This is a shame because refining whole grains removes most of their vitamins and minerals. In making white flour, about 75% of the minerals are lost from the whole wheat.
White flour, deceptively labeled ‘wheat flour’, contains 13% of the chromium, 9% of the manganese, 19% of the iron, 30% of the cobalt, 10-30% of the copper and only17% of the zinc and magnesium contained in the whole wheat. Brown rice suffers somewhat less losses when it is refined into white rice.
Refining whole grains not only removes most of their trace minerals. It also removes most of their essential B vitamins. White flour contains only 23% of the thiamine, 20% of the riboflavin, 19% of the niacin, 29% of the pyridoxine, 50% of the pantothenic acid and 33% of the folic acid. Eighty-six percent of the vitamin E is also lost when whole wheat is made into white flour.
Removing the wheat bran does additional nutritional damage. Bran, which is mainly a fibrous substance, helps avoid constipation and can assist in the production of some vitamins in the intestinal tract.
After the best parts of the wheat has been removed, most flour is bleached with chlorine bleach similar to that used to whiten clothing. When cooked, it forms toxic chlorinated compounds. Many pesticides, for example, are chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Enriched Flour. Almost 100 years ago, tests were made feeding only white flour to animals. The test animals developed fatal neurological problems. This is because the vitamins and minerals in the wheat are needed to digest the flour. As a result of these experiments, our government requires that all white flour be enriched with three B vitamins and iron.
This is beneficial to a slight degree. However, it has caused other serious problems. First, the flour is still deficient in at least 30 other minerals, vitamins and oils. Secondly, adding only one mineral, iron, completely unbalances the food. Minerals normally compete for absorption with each other.
When many minerals are removed through refining, and then a single mineral is added in significant quantity, too much of that mineral can be absorbed, leading to mineral imbalances. This is exactly what occurs today. Fortunately, the non-organic form of iron in white flour is poorly absorbed. Even so, we get too much iron from white flour that is not balanced with other vital minerals.
OTHER PROBLEMS WITH WHEAT
Wheat can no longer be considered “the staff of life”. In fact, it has become one of the most common allergic foods and a food to avoid in all forms. Many people report that when they completely eliminate wheat from the diet they have more energy, fewer allergies, improved digestion and they often lose weight as well. Heartburn often decreases or goes away completely they have less gas or bloating as well. Let us examine why.
Hybridization. Wheat grown today is extremely hybridized. This means it has been altered to produce greater yields, more bug resistance or a better shelf life. However, it has not been bred for improved nutrition or easier digestion, for example.
In fact, the protein content of our wheat has declined significantly over the past century, from about 13% to about 5-6% today. Wheat now contains more starch, less protein and fewer trace minerals. Wheat today is also extremely high in glutamine, an amino acid that has an inflammatory effect on the body. In addition, wheat contains gluten, a protein to which an increasing number of people are allergic. These are just a few of the effects of modern hybridization of wheat. Newer genetically-modified wheat may have even more problems, such as containing some degree of pesticides that are literally bred into the plant to resist pests.
Wheat-Free Foods. If one eats processed foods, eliminating wheat is not easy because it is hidden in so many processed foods. One must read labels carefully, and even then there are occasional surprises. Those who are sensitive to gluten must also eliminate rye, oats, spelt and barley from their diets as well. The clinical name for gluten sensitivity is celiac disease. However, as more people are choosing to eliminate all wheat, which I strongly recommend, more and more foods are available that are wheat-free and even gluten-free. Eating at home makes it much easier to avoid wheat by just staying away from wheat pasta, most breads, cookies, cakes, breading used on deep-fried foods, thickeners and dressings containing wheat flour. Substitutes for these are often easy to find.
The other grains may be eaten in moderation by most people, especially white Basmati rice and organic blue corn chips with sea salt. Some people must avoid most grains for a while to help lose weight or if their bodies are high in yeast or candida albicans infection grains may bother their bodies.
Cooked vegetables are a very important food group that almost everyone fails to eat enough of. Starchy vegetables such as roots contain some complex carbohydrates. The best root vegetables include onions, carrots, turnips, rutabagas, golden beets, celery root and parsnips. Others, which are less healthful, are potatoes, squashes, jicama, sweet potatoes, yams and daikon radish.
Nightshades and yin vegetables. Potatoes, along with tomatoes, eggplant, peppers and a few others are in the nightshade family of vegetables. This group of foods contains certain toxins that cause reactions in sensitive individuals. Squash, along with peppers, tomatoes and a few other vegetables, are, in fact, fruits and are far more yin in Chinese medical terminology. For this reason, these are less recommended for daily fare. An occasional serving is okay, however.
Root vegetables are often easier to digest than cereal grains, and much less allergenic for most people than wheat. Roots and tubers usually need cooking to help break down their fiber and make them easier to digest.
Starchy vegetables should be a major part of your diet if you are health-conscious. They are tasty and nutritious by themselves, in soups and in casseroles. They keep well in the refrigerator and are generally inexpensive.
LEGUMES OR DRIED BEANS
Another set of foods high in complex carbohydrates is dried beans or legumes. These include lentils, pinto beans, navy beans, garbanzos and black-eyed peas. Others are lentils, red beans, azuki beans, peanuts, soybeans, black beans and others.
Dried beans are staple foods in many cultures, as they are inexpensive, nutritious and they keep well. However, they are not a major part of the diets we recommend. Reasons for this are:
- 1. While they are rich in certain amino acids, their protein content is rather imbalanced. They are not as high quality proteins as eggs, meats and other animal products. This is not helpful for many people, especially in Western nations.
- 2. They are more yin in Chinese medical terminology.
- 3. They are low in a quality we call etheric energy. This is a life energy quality that increases when one is in the animal realm, but is less in the vegetable kingdom.
Soy. Soy should be fermented for best digestion, as is done with tofu, tempeh, and miso and other fermented soy products. Fermenting soybeans helps destroy enzyme inhibitors, phytates and other harmful chemicals they contain. For this reason, I do not recommend soy protein isolate, soymilks, soy burgers and other soy products that have not been fermented.
An important point about all starches is they begin to be digested in the mouth. They will become sweet if you chew each bite at least 10 times. So chew your starches thoroughly.
SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES – FRUIT
Ripe fruit contains mainly simple carbohydrates or sugars. These are also found in other sweet foods such as honey, maple syrup, corn sweeteners and refined sugar. Fruits also contain some fiber and vitamins, minerals and other nutrients.
However, most fruit is mainly sugar and water. I feel that fruit is nutritionally highly overrated. Many who are trying to live healthfully eat an excessive amount of it because it is quick and easy to eat, satisfies cravings for sugar and is less expensive than many protein foods. Fruit is largely unhealthful today because:
- Most fruit today is hybridized. That is, it has been altered for enhanced sweetness, better shelf life or bug resistance, but not for better nutrition. Most hybrid fruit contains more sugar, but almost all contains fewer vitamins and minerals. If you happen upon an older apple or pear tree, you will often find the fruit is smaller and less sweet.
- Lots of pesticides are often used to grow fruit. It is always best, therefore, to seek out organically grown fruit.
- Fruit is extremely yin in Chinese medical terms. This is not helpful for almost all people.
- Fruit acids often have an acidic reaction in sick individuals, in spite of what one is told by the acid-alkaline books and websites.
- Eating fruit often upsets the blood sugar, which, in turn, stresses the adrenals glands even more.
- Fruit is also hard to digest when combined with other foods. Therefore, it is best eaten alone, if at all.
- Fruit is very low in etheric energy.
Do not eat more than one small piece of fruit daily, and none is needed. Among the best fruits are berries such as blackberries, raspberries and cranberries. Berries are high in anti-oxidants and other health-promoting substances. Dates and figs are also very nutritious, though they are also very sweet. Other fruits, such as apples, peaches, pears, plums and others are also okay if eaten in very small quantities.
Most sugars eaten today, including most honey, is refined. This means that some or all of the minerals and vitamins naturally contained in the food are removed. This is a crime against humanity, as these precise minerals, vitamins and other nutrients are needed just to digest the food. Therefore, the more that one eats of these foods, the more sick one becomes.
For example, sugar cane is processed into molasses and sugar. The sugar contains almost no vitamins or minerals. Molasses, meanwhile, is considered a health food, as it is rich in micronutrients. Despite some propaganda to the contrary, eating sugar leads to tooth decay, hypoglycemia, hyperactive behavior, mood swings, diabetes, cancer, heart disease and more illnesses.
Unfortunately, most Americans receive a major portion of their calories from refined sweeteners. The most popular today is high-fructose corn syrup. It is one of the worst sugars, but it is widely used, as it is inexpensive. Corn syrup, which is mainly fructose, interferes with blood sugar and with copper metabolism. These are just two of its problems.
Other refined sugars are barley malt and rice syrup, which are little better than refined sugar. Others are beet sugar, and most honey and maple syrup. Most honey is boiled, and most maple syrup contains a little real syrup with added sugar. These “foods” contain little or no vitamins and are correctly called “empty calories”. They contribute to an epidemic today of obesity, hypoglycemia, diabetes, heart disease, cancer and other illnesses. Preferably totally avoid all sugars, even natural ones.
Refined sweeteners are often listed on food labels as glucose, fructose, maltose, corn syrup, sugar, liquid sugar or natural sweeteners. They are added to most processed foods from soda pop and cereals to dressings, breads, pastries, desserts of all kinds, condiments such as ketchup and mustard, peanuts butter and hundreds of other foods. They upset blood sugar and raise insulin levels, slowly causing many health conditions.
Some carbohydrates are not well digested by human beings. We call these fibers. These serve as roughage. Sometimes vegetable fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble fibers. Soluble fibers include psyllium and pectin, among others. Insoluble fibers include cellulose and bran from wheat, oats or other grains. Cellulose forms the structure of most plants and can be digested by some animals. Pectin is a fruit fiber.
Fibers are an important group of food products for the following reasons:
- 1. Fibers create bulk in the intestines that help move food along in the intestines.
- 2. Some fibers are used for the synthesis of vitamins in the intestines.
- 3. Fiber is very important to absorb certain toxins and other chemicals as food passes through the intestines. One of the most important chemicals they absorb is cholesterol, secreted in the bile. However, there are many, many others as well. All foods contain toxic chemicals in small quantities. Fiber is essential to bind many of these harmful chemicals and remove them from the body. Soluble fibers such as pectin, alginates and others can absorb toxic metals as well.
- 4. Certain fibers can slow the absorption of sugars in the diet, helping to maintain a more balanced blood sugar level.
- 5. Fibers can sometimes be broken down in the intestines and used as food. In these cases, the fiber is not serving as roughage, but it actually used as food. This is less common in human beings, however.
Most foods contain some fiber. One of the worst sins against healthful eating is the removal of the bran fiber from grains that occurs during the refining process. This tends to cause constipation in those eating white flour and to some extent white rice products.
Just as we cannot digest some fibrous starches, our bodies do not absorb some sugars. These are found in various fruits and vegetables, and help make the food sweet-tasting without adding calories or sugar to the diet.
In the food industry, these are used as natural non-caloric sweeteners and include mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol. These are excellent sweeteners if one does not want the calories that the other sugars provide. They are not without problems, however. They still upset the blood sugar level, though less than calorie-containing sugars. They can send phony signals to the body that one is eating a sugar and to prepare to digest the sugar, when in fact the product is not digested and absorbed at all.
I believe it is best not to sweeten your food. The best solution is to avoid all sweets. Sweetening your food is just a habit, and with patience and practice it can be changed. However, if you need a non-caloric sweetener, xylitol or mannitol are far better than the artificial sweeteners such as Aspartame, Equal, Splenda or Saccharin.
The latter are synthetic chemicals that have been shown to have many adverse effects on the body. Indeed, the term “aspartame disease” describes a range of symptoms from depression to seizures that can result from consuming diet soda and hundreds of other products sweetened with NutraSweet or Equal. If you have any unusual symptoms and use artificial sweeteners, try discontinuing them all for at least three weeks and notice if you feel better.
One can find non-caloric natural sweeteners such as xylitol, sorbitol or mannitol at health food stores and some supermarkets.
CARBOHYDRATES AND WEIGHT GAIN
Overeating on carbohydrates is a major cause of excessive weight gain. A common misconception is that eating fat makes one fat. However, most weight gain today is due to overeating on refined sugars and, to a lesser extent, eating complex carbohydrates in excess.
Let us explain why people believe that eating fat makes one fat, and why it is not true:
- 1. Carbohydrates provide four calories (energy units) per gram, while fats provide nine caloriesper gram. This leads many doctors and health authorities to think that fats make you fat, butcarbohydrates do not. However, our bodies easily convert carbohydrates to fats through theaction of insulin and other hormones.
- 2. Eating carbohydrates increases insulin secretion, and decreases zinc, magnesium and othervital minerals. This can contribute to weight gain and many other diseases. Eating high qualityfats does not increase insulin secretion as much.
- 3. Breads, pasta, fruit and sweets can also alter neurotransmitter levels in ways that cause acalming effect. This can be addictive for some people, leading to overeating on these foods. Dr. Robert Atkins, MD, a cardiologist in New York City, did quite extensive research on thissubject. Although he was scorned for years, his research has been shown to be valid.
Here are simple tips to avoid overeating on these sweets and starches:
- 1. Make sure the carbohydrates you eat are unrefined only. This alone is most helpful. This means to eat only whole grains such as brown rice, yellow corn tortillas, and only the organic blue corn tortilla chips. Do not eat anything made with wheat flour, such as flour tortillas, white or“rye” breads unless 100% rye flour, white rice or white sugar in any form or product. This will limit your soda pop, ice cream, cookies, cakes, and much more. Also avoid anything sweetened with fruit juices, as these also count as concentrated sugars with few other nutrients in them.
- 2. If you must have honey or maple syrup, make sure it is 100% pure and not laced with sugar and use as little as possible.
- 3. Be sure to ask for what you want at restaurants. This way more restaurants will begin to offer the higher quality foods. Ask that the bread be removed from the table.
- 4. Eat some fats or oils at least twice daily if you are used to eating a lot of carbohydrates. This way you will not be so hungry for starches and sugars. Most people also need to eat protein at least twice daily to avoid sweet cravings.
- 5. If you are hypoglycemic, or just trying to reduce your carbohydrate intake, eat 4 or 5 small meals during the day of a protein food and some fat and vegetables. This will help maintain your blood sugar and prevent cravings.
- 6. Eat only fresh fruit or frozen berries, and very little of it. Avoid all dried fruit, all sweet fruit like dates, figs and bananas and avoid canned and baked fruit as well.
- 7. Eat carbohydrates with a low glycemic index. This topic is covered in the next section.
THE GLYCEMIC INDEX
All carbohydrate foods raise the level of glucose in the blood. This is considered an unhealthy quality of carbohydrates. The glycemic index of a food tells to what extent a food raises the glucose level in the blood relative to other foods. To eat lower glycemic index foods, here are a guidelines:
- Eat cereals with oats, barley or bran.
- If you eat bread, make sure it is whole-grain, stone ground and sourdough.
- Among the grains, Basmati rice, pasta, noodles and quinoa are excellent.
- Eat plenty of vegetables and a few fresh fruits.
- However, eat fewer potatoes.
- When eating salads, use vinaigrette dressing rather than blue cheese, thousand island or other sweetened dressings.
The Internet offers long lists of foods and their glycemic index. However, we find that this is not the most important quality of a food to pay attention to. It is far more important to avoid refined grains, all sugars and in particular, avoid all wheat products.
1. Cleave, T.L., The Saccharine Disease, The Master Disease Of Our Time, Keats Publishing, CT, 1974.
2. Hall, R.H., Food For Naught, The Decline in Nutrition, Vintage Books, NY, 1976
3. Schroeder, H., The Trace Elements and Man, Devin-Adair Company, Ct., 1973.